Vol. 1

NEW YORK, JANUARY 6, 1912

No. 13.

One mine manager recently took exception to a statement we made that coal mines throughout the country were operating at “such and such’”’ per cent. of their capacity. Because a local boom had struck his camp, he thought equally favorable conditions pre- vailed everywhere.

So it is with many people—they think only as far as they can see, and since each one’s horizon is the limit of his vision, the conclusions arrived at by an individual are often wrong because they’re based en- tirely on a local view. For this reason, it is neces- sary to consult figures rather than the man when we are wanting to know the nation-wide condition of an industry.

There’s no denying that every other person we meet today is complaining of slack business—sort of a depression, etc. Yet, one thousand industrial com- panies in 1911 paid $410,000,000 in dividends, which is $30,000,000 more than was paid in 1910 and $90,000,- ooo more than was paid in 1909. If that doesn’t in- dicate a healthy growth, then we’re justified in the belief that prosperity is indicated by reduced net income.

And how can we dispute that coal mining has re- ceived its fair proportion of the business advance of the age? In 1825 the United States produced 100,000 tons of coal; in 1850 it was seven million; in 1875 we mined 50 million ;in 1900 the production was 270 million, and in 1911, the coal output of our country totaled ap- proximately 500 million tons, or about 40% of the world’s production.

If prices are low and general conditions unsatis- factory, let’s not blame business, but more properly recognize that the trouble is within rather than with- out. An external application of salve on the stom- ach won’t cure pimples on the nose; it’s necessary to swallow something that will reach the spot, cure the indigestion and purify the blood.

We've heard for years that our summers are get- ting hotter and: our winters milder, but the mercury makes a new low record for some particular day each

year; most every fortnight someone discovers that elec- tricity will furnish all needed heat as well as power, but he forgets to tell us how he’s going to gener- ate electricity without burning coal; then we are dis- turbed by the fellow who has a scheme to pierce the depths of the earth and furnish us heat; still consump- tion increases, and it’s safe to conclude our children’s children will be using more coal in their. homes and factories than we ever dreamed could be mined.

Therefore, viewing the industry in the light of fact, what is there to be discouraged about? ’Tis true wages have steadily increased and the cost of timber and other materials essential. to mining has likewise ad- vanced to new high prices, but similar conditions have prevailed at the same time in other great businesses, and still profits in the aggregate have grown each year. The rule of success today is, ‘‘For each added charge, there must be an added improvement,” so if props cost 2c. more per ton of coal output, the cutting machines at the face, the haulage, the hoist, or some- thing must be operated to effect an offsetting economy.

One operator recently showed me a cost sheet which read: Total mining, 0.4612; other costs, 0.0401; royalty, 0.05; handling, putting on cars, etc., 0.053; total cost per ton, 0.6043c., and it’s needless to say he wasn’t a pessimist on the situation. His philosophy was, that the chief advantage to be derived from the application of advanced methods and the adoption of improved machinery is not so much the immediate bettering of output and lowering of costs, as to place and keep your mine in position to profit in full when the periodic boom arrives. ,

Don’t forget that in 1904 the wail of coal men was, ‘‘How can we remedy this overproduction?” in 1905 and1g06 the plaint had changed to, ‘‘Where can we get cars and men?” The pendulum is still swing- ing—a new year and likely a new era have dawned. People. won’t wear white diamonds on their bosoms till they’ve plenty of black ones in the cellar. Unless aman is ready for the chance, the opportunity will do him no good.

398

COAL AGE

January 6, 1912

The World’s Coal Production

A bluebook on colonial and foreign statistics, prepared by the British chief inspector of mines, and issued by the Home Office Department, supplies what are perhaps the most complete statistics in one volume, relating to persons em- ployed, output and accidents at mines and quarries throughout the world. The volume was issued in September and gives the statistics for 1909, but owing to the want of adequate official data the figures in some cases have merely been estimated from the records of earlier years; those for the leading coal-mining nations are, however, fairly complete.

PRODUCTION

It is seen that at the mines and quar- ries of the world, 6,004,928 persons were employed, and of these the inspector shows that more than one-half were en- gaged in mining coal alone. Great Britain employed over 997,000; the United States, 660,000; Germany, 688,- 000; France, 190,000; Russia (1908), 174,000; Belgium, 143,000; Austria, 134,000, and India, over 119,000.

These are impressive figures, and we further learn that the coal produced was 1,113,308,386 metric tons, possessing a value estimated at nearly 400 million pounds sterling, or, say, two billion dol- lars. These figures show an increase in production for the year of 45 million tons but a decrease in value of 46 million dollars. The three leading coal-producing countries are the United States, with over 418 million tons; Great Britain, with over 268 mil- lion, and Germany, with over 217 million. These countries are followed by Austria- Hungary, France, Russia and Belgium, in the order given, representing the seven nations having a production of 20 million metric tons or more. Japan comes next on the list with 15,058,113 tons; India, with 12,060,550 tons; China, with 11 million tons, and Canada, with 9,526,784 tons.

MORTALITY STATISTICS

Taking the coal mines for which the figures are fairly complete, it is shown that the death rate per thousand persons employed in the United Kingdom was 1.43; the British Empire, 1.48; Austria, 1.13; Belgium, 0.95; France, 1.17; Japan, 3.51; Germany, 2.30, and for the United States, 3.35. The death rate for coun- tries outside the British Empire general- ly was 2.48.

COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA

The Commonwealth produced 8% million metric ‘tons of coal in 1909, nearly 86 per cent. of which was fur- nished by New South Wales. In this

state, excluding lignite and seams of the Triassic age, it is computed that the

Special Correspondence

A brief synopsis of the latest available statistics concerning the world’s pro- duction, together with notes on the different fields. The total extraction is over one billion metric tons, having a value above two billion dollars. More than six mill- ton persons are employed.

*Abstract of report issued by the Brit- ish Home Ofhce Department. main coal-bearing rocks extend over an area of 24,000 to 28,000 square miles around the seaport of Sydney.

As yet, Tasmania supplies less than 70,000 tons per annum, although there are abundant seams of marketable coal in the country. These belong to the Carboniferous and Mesozoic periods, and vary from 20 in. to 12 ft. in thickness, while brown coal and lignite occur all along the North Coast.

The state of Victoria contributed 130,- 230 tons. Since November, 1909, this state has owned its own coal mine on the Powlett River, the output of which to Sept. 7, 1910, was 93,431 tons, valued at the mine at $203,883. At that date coal was being raised at the rate of over 1000 tons per day and over 900 men were employed in the mine and on the various development works.

The following figures show the main sources from which the fuel supply of the world for 1909 was obtained, with the value in pounds sterling and the increases or decreases on 1906:

belongs to the Cretaceous age, and is derived from collieries at Nanaimo, Ex- tension, and Comox in Vancouver Island. The thick seams of bituminous coal, which exist in the vicinity of the Crow’s Nest Pass, are now being worked on an extensive scale, and a large quantity of the coal mined is converted into coke for use in the smelting industry in British Columbia. All these coals are of Cretaceous age.

NATAL

In this colony in 1909 about 9000 persons were engaged, the coal pro- duced being 1,815,253 metric tons, valued at $3,229,400. There were 25 electrical coal-cutters and 97 worked by com- pressed air in operation, nearly 62 per cent. of the coal being obtained by ma- chine-mining—perhaps the highest per- centage for any single country in the world.

New ZEALAND

The output here was 1,941,918 tons, valued at 55,055,000. The most important collieries are situated near Westport, on the West Coast of the Midland Island. More than one-third of the total output is brown coal or lignite, and many of the workings are open-cut. The coal from the West Coast bituminous fields is of a high class and used by the Admiralty. From the Point Elizabeth State coal mine, 207,450 tons were produced, and the amount from the Seddonville State mine was 74,180 tons during the year ended Mar. 31, 1910. The profits of both State mines during the fiscal year amounted to $23,900.

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

In Austria the principal workings for brown coal are in the Brux-Dux-Teplitz

MAIN SOURCES OF WORLD’S FUEL SUPPLY

QUANTITY VALUE Increase or Increase or Country Metric Tons Decrease on Dollars Decrease on 1906 1906 WOMOE ONES ow 5% 6 oo ei ers $48,038,000 + 40,788,000 554,503,000 + 22,571,000 Oo ce eee 268,007 ,000 + 2,282,000 517,187,000 —50,241,000 ONRUR MRI 5. x. nce.4is oie Gisis 6-5 217,446,000 +2,159,000 | 413,214,000 —1,119,000 Austria-Hungary.......... 18813000 —153/000 | 74/314/000 + 1/684;000 PEMMEBINN Sait ghee daa) hes ney 37,840,000 : + 456,000 | 112,110,000 —3,197,000 LON eee ae praaned ne 24,455,000 | —1,448,000 | (not stated) Ps ok oka Belgium Sees 23,518,000 | —40,000 | 65,775,000 —%8,307,000 |

CANADA

The oldest coal fields in Canada which have been largely developed, are situated on the seaboards of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. On the Atlantic side of the continent, bituminous coal is being mined from thick seams of true Car- boniferous age at the Sydney (Cape Bre- ton), Picton, Inverness and Cumberland coal fields, in Nova Scotia. The coal of the Pacific Coast, generally bituminous,

and Falkenau-Elbogener basins. In the former, seams of Miocene age occur up to a thickness of 98% ft. (30 m.), while in the latter, seams of Miocene and Oligocene* age are worked. In _ the Schalltal district there is a seam which in places is over 100 m. (328 ft.) in thickness.

*The Oligocene is the transitional pe- riod between the Eocene and the Miocene of the Tertiary.—Editor.

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January 6, 1912

Austria produced 13,713,042 metric tons of coal in 1909, nearly one-half of vhich was obtained from the Upper Silesian coal basin which is a continua- iion of the Prussian and Russian coal field. In this basin there are numerous rich seams of excellent coking coal.

BELGIUM

In this country, coal mining is the most important mineral industry, and there are six different regions; the most pro- ductive is the Charleroi district, yielding about one-third of the total output. The average production per underground worker in 1909 was only 228 metric tons, due probably to the small size of the seams, which on an average are only 2 ft. 1.59 in. (65 cm.) thick. In Belgium the average daily wage per underground worker is less than a dollar a day.

GERMAN EMPIRE

Deposits of brown coal are found in more or less abundance over nearly the The deposit

whole of North Germany.

COAL AGE

JAPAN

The coal-bearing formations of the Japanese Islands range from Mesozoic to Tertiary. The coal, which occurs in 43 of the 49 prefectures, is mainly bituminous and most of the seams belong to the Tertiary period. The principal coal fields may be divided into five groups as follows: Kyushu, Hokkaido, Honshu (the main island), the Southern Islands and Karafuts. More than two- thirds of the total output is produced in the island of Kyushu. In 1874 the out- put was less than a quarter of a million tons, and in 1909 it reached over 15 millions. A large part of the coal pro- duced in Japan goes to supply the Chinese markets.

PERU

All the different varieties of fuel exist in Peru, viz., peat, lignite, coal and an- thracite. Lignite is found in the Tertiary rocks on the coast and at the summit of the Cordillera at Cajamorca. The true coal and anthracite are found in the

RUSSIA

The most productive coal region of Russia is the Donets basin in the province of Ekaterinoslav, which covers an area of 16,000 square miles, the seams varying in thickness from 1 to 7 ft. The output of this basin in 1909 was 17,779,- 863 metric tons. Next in importance comes Poland, with an output of over

% million metric tons of true coal and brown coal. The Dombrowa Basin, in Poland, is a continuation of the great Silesian coal basin. Coal is abundant in Siberia, both east and west, and even along the line of the Trans-Siberian Ry., but the quality is poor. In the island of Saghalien, coal is worked by Russian convicts; the present output is small and is used by steamships.

SERVIA

Most of the coal in Servia lies near the Danube;- the workings of chief im- portance being at Dobra. The coal oc- curs in the Liassic formation, which be- longs to the lower portion of the Jurassic.

* Coal Act

In Many EvropeaAN Mines, Girts ARE EMPLOYED IN THE SCREEN Houses TO PusH CARS AND PICK SLATE

of Vorgebirge near Cologne in the Rhine Province consists of a large, con- inuous bed extending about 25 km. (15% miles) from north to south with an average width of 6 km. (534 miles). A Preparation called Kaumacit has _at- tracted some interest. It is brown coal rendered transportable and imperishable by a process of dry distillation, reducing the coal to from 35 to 50 per cent. Kaumacit. The process yields an ad- citional 3 per cent. of tar, 17 to 26 Ib. of ammonia, and. 2500 cu.m. of gas, per load of 10 tons.

There are three principal coal-mining districts in Prussia: (1) The Lower Rhine and Westphalian Basin, by far the most important; (2) Silesia, and es- pecially Upper Silesia; (3) the Rhen- ish district in the neighborhood of Saarbrucken and Aix-la-Chapelle. Most of the coal is derived from seams of the Carboniferous age; near Hanover there are extensive workings in the Wealden beds. In 1909 Germany ex- Ported 23,350,730 metric tons of coal.

Cretaceous rocks in various places, and a solid hydrocarbon which is neither coal nor anthracite occurs in veins, and is likewise worked and sold as mineral fuel. There are large areas of coal in the department of Ancachs, in the Santa Valley, at Jatunhuasi, near Jauja, in the department of Junin, in the neighborhood of Cerro’ de Pasco, and in the depart- ments of Huanuco, Cajainarca and Lib- ertad. The bulk of the output is ob- tained from the province of Cerro de Pasco. PHILIPPINE ISLANDS

Coal occurs in the Tertiary shales and sandstones on nearly every island, with the greatest development in the Visayas. The most promising coal fields at pres- ent are situated in the provinces of AIl- bay, Cebu, Tayabas, Sorsogon, Mindovo and Moro. Four coal seams have been found in Cebu having thicknesses of 2, 5, 10 and 13 ft. The total output in 1909 was obtained from two mines on the island of Batan in the province of Albay.

True coal, said to be almost as good as English coals, occurs and is worked in the Timok Valley, near Urska Tschuka. In the Boljevac district a coal basin ex- tending over a large area has been dis- covered. Servia is rich in mines of brown coal and thick beds of Tertiary brown coal occur at Senje, Sisevac, Resava, Jelasnica, Koaljevac and _ in many other parts of the country. The revenue from the state mine at Senje in 1909 was $183,000 and the expenditure $180,000. It is explained by the Mining Department that 60 per cent. of the total production from the state mines is de- livered to the Servian State Ry., and charged at their own cost price; other- wise the working of the mines would result in a large profit.

SWEDEN

All the Swedish coal obtained in 1909 was produced from the provinces of Malmohus and Kristianotad in the south- ern part of the kingdom. The seams, which are of Rhodanian age, are inter-

400

stratified with beds of fireclay, and the two minerals are worked together. The thickness of the coal seams, including the partings of shale, varies from 3 to 5 feet. ITALY

In this country the development of the deposits of fossil fuel, which mineral is stated to be abundant in the provinces of Arezzo, Pisa and Grosseto in Tuscany, is hindered by the cheapness of im- ported coal from the United Kingdom. The total output in 1909 was only 555,- 073 metric tons, of which 552,136 tons were lignite, 2055 tons anthracite and 882 tons bituminous shale. Most of the lignite came from Tuscany; the anthra- cite from the provinces of Cagliari (Sar- dinia) and Turin, and the bituminous shale from Vicenza.

TURKEY

Although coal is known to occur in nearly all the provinces of the empire, the only mines deserving mention at the present time are those at Eregli. Im- portant deposits of lignite or brown coal exist in the region of Lebanon, and near Lampsacus on the east side of the

COAL AGE

Dardanelles. Coarse lignite has been found in several places near Sparta, Karaman, and in the Bulghar Dagh which may prove useful for smelting purposes. Coal deposits are known to exist in the Van district in the province of Erzeroum.

SUMMARY

The tabulated statement in the next column shows the separate outputs, in 1909, of the various coal-producing coun- tries of the world, as given in the report of the British Home Office. The figures for Brazil, China, Korea and Mexico are estimated from those of the previous year, and, in the case of Peru, Romania and Bulgaria, the totals given are for 1908.

It will be noted that the United States, with an output of 418 million tons in 1909, produced something over 37% per cent. of the world’s coal for that year, or 1% times the amount mined by Great Britain and 1.9 times that produced by Germany, the two countries ranking sec- ond and third, respectively, in point of individual output. The annual production of coal in the United States has since increased by nearly 75 million tons.

January 6,. 1912

WORLD’S PRODUCTION OF COAL

Country Metric Tons Great Britain and Ireland........ 268,007 ,257 COT RE ae ea ei res enor 3316452 SSTIGIN THOTEDO.. 56s ck sees 127,944 RMUEMIN Gc iairc-ig' at 5-6) 406) Sic. a eater ole 8-5 9,516,784 Nn REE CCE Te 93,695 Re cone Wig ac ncalig duane) ecererarecaiens 12,060,550 Natal (including Zululand)........ 1,815,253 a vere 1,941,918 OT nee 426,913 MIN a6 0 hic c sp ig a ees itera e 155,032 SS a a a eae gee ce 3,287,328 PUSETAR-EAUTGBTY . oo ccc cee eee 48, "812! 901 Bosnia and Herzegovina.......... ,114 MOONE a8 oir sie sowie Sacaiwis ara wie o ers 23,517 "550 MEET ike an aig x anielc eater ctatate weakens 15,000 PUNE os oo hes corks Gara ee areas 162,992 RSS eens Creme remie ee ea ce 898,971 SUS 6.0 oy AG ch cht cE 11,000, ~ Tose ion bcs Wea A eee a eels ci ec vbr rat nice Sate Saha Aer 37,840, 086 ON eee eee eee "384. 053 ASOPINAT TONIPITS . ww. see ees 217,445,656 are Branly a Ree erg tee 3,873 RUE 227.2005. fee Fa ener g eg ssienne 1,120,852 Dutch East Indies ee ees 08,771 ho ee Bae ee ee 555,073 RES eecrcie noite Gs hu ent, ees ee 15,058,113 NEMS, 52h Greece canna saya stacanarete 183,412 MING 5 ioe i ao ee a RO 60,000 —_— 1 SN Dae ec eee gL AD ee en 919,338 eC en ee en aR en Or eee 313,122 Philippine ¥ ee ea eer ee 30,336 Portugal . reese See at ees ae 6,274 Roumania te CE tee eter ot rome aS 160,783 MMMM CGR oo susok aas eis eos ok bation 24,455,340 <BR Arora rarer erica 213/308 Spain. .....- Beer agnen he tere een 4,125,894 a re ree 2,316 REIN fo cre rearal porte eae 246,808 Switzerand.........5. Sra caeeemtees 5,000 INN Socks vnloreuis aw uerence ars 771,203 APRN PEBORS co ok oo ok codes ne Se 418,038,117 Total for the world. «24.066 66056 1,113,308,386

Coal Mine Mortality Statistics

The production of 514,392,000 short tons of anthracite and bituminous coal during 1910 involved the loss of 3051 lives in 21 states and provinces of the United States and Canada. The loss of life exceeded that for the corresponding period in 1909, when, according to the corrected returns, there were 2417 fatal- ities. The actual excess of deaths during 1910 over 1909, was, therefore, 634, showing an increase of 26.23 per cent.

The fatality rate for 1910 was 4.18 per 1000 persons employed, against 3.39 for 1909. The fatality rate for 1910 was therefore, 0.79 per 1000 higher than dur- ing the preceding year, an excess equiva- lent to 23.3 per cent. The rate for 1910 was the highest on record during the last decade, the nearest approach thereto hav- ing been 1907, when the rate was 4.15 per 1000.

BUREAU OF MINES CONTRADICTED

This comparison of the record for 1910 with 1909 is upon the basis of the offi- cial returns furnished by the mine in- spectors of the different states. The facts derived from trustworthy sources, there- fore, contradict the statement made in the program of the National Mine Safety Demonstration under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Mines that:

The coédperation of inspectors, miners, mine owners and the Bureau of Mines in the effort to reduce loss of life has re- sulted in a decrease of 25 per cent. in fatal accidents in 1908 and 1909, the last two years for which figures are avail- able, and with continued earnest codéper-

By Frederick L. Hoffman*

Carefully compiled and accurate statistical data on the death rate in North American mines. The rates are computed on the basis of the number of men employed, and show an almost continual advance, being especially rapid dur- ing the past decade.

*Statistician, Prudential Insurance Co., Newark, J.

ation it is hoped that the succeeding years will show a still further lessening in loss of life, and a corresponding in- crease in efficiency in mining methods and mineral utilization.

iN T rT ae ii ° - Ss L nae f b a3 \ | & HHA Ne a a a} 7900 1905 10 Years Con, noe INCREASE IN MORTALITY RATE 1886-1910

It is true, of course, that the rates during 1908 and 1909 were lower than

during 1907, when the rate was materially increased by a number of disasters of ex- ceptional magnitude. The decrease, how- ever, did not justify the assumption that -the reduction was the result of the co- operation of inspectors, miners, mine owners and the Bureau of Mines, except in certain well defined and strictly limit- ed directions, which do not require to be considered at this time.- The chief object for calling attention to the glaring incon- sistencies of the statement referred to, and the facts which are a matter of of- ficial record, is to emphasize the lament- able truth that whatever has been done during recent years to bring about a re- duction in the fatality rate does not justi- fy the belief that measurable results of material importance have been thus far secured.

As is well known, the year 1907 was an exceptionally disastrous one in Amer- ican mining. A comparison of 1908 and 1909 with the record of 1907 is obviously misleading when it is assumed that the lower fatality rate during these two years was brought about by deliberate meas- ures for accident prevention. Compar- ing 1908 with 1907, there was an actual reduction in the number of accidents equivalent to 22 per cent., and compar- ing 1909 with 1907, there was a reduction of 23 per cent. But comparing 1909 with 1908, the actual number of accidents was almost the same, and the reduction in the rate, making allowance, of course, for the number employed, was only 12 per cent.

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POOR R EEE SY RIN

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January 6, 1912

Comparing the record for the last two years with every other year in the his- tory of American mining except 1907, the actual loss of life has been greater, and the corresponding fatality rate has been in excess of the rate for any other year. The record for the two years, 1908 and 1909, is not one to be proud of, or to be referred to as showing evidence of a material reduction in the loss of life as the result of deliberate efforts or co- operation between existing agencies for that purpose. The loss was exceedingly high actually and relatively, and the de-

COAL AGE

of fact, in the fatal accidents due to powder explosions, missed shots, etc. (which are particularly subject to reduc- tion by education, improved methods of shot firing and handling of explosives), there was an increase from 73 in 1908 to 108 during 1909.

We may, therefore, take the two groups of causes, which are especially related to the present-day efforts toward accident reduction. According to the official sta- tistics, as published by the U. S. Geolog- ical Survey, there were 469 deaths from these two groups of causes during 1908

(TABLE 1)

401

on the other hand an actual increase in the deaths from falls of roof of 111, equivalent to 10.3 per cent. It requires to be said that there was a reduction in the miscellaneous causes. This may or may not have a relation to the efforts to reduce casualties in mining; only the detailed analysis could bring out the facts.

FATALITIES DURING 1901 To 1910

The number of persons killed by acci- dents in the coal mines of North Amer- ica during the decade ending with 1910, .

NUMBER OF PERSONS KILLED IN THE COAL MINES OF NORTH AMERICA, 1901-1910

1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 : - 1909 1910 1901-1910 PE ODER Te ere 41 50 57 84 185 96 154 108 129 238 1,142 COMMER Sits coat cc eee 55 73 40 89 ' 60 88 99 61 99 319 983 ED xv oe eae nGede con 99 99 156 |. 157 199 | 155 165 183 213 406 1,832 pi ener ere rete rarer area 24 24 55 34 47 31 53 45 50 51 NA aor oc katete tic oO eres sets 27 55 21 31 24 37 35 38 28 39 335 PR ARMMME Sos sie aes chcte eke. wie ote cant 10 30 36 16 (a) 36 30 52 31 35 25 301 fC eee core yA | 19 25 19 31 40 32 40 33 84 344 SE ARIREN 555.0 'o co 06.9 gic teres eee we 12 11 16 12 16 13 5 12 19 17 133 pp Re aA ccuret creer 6 6 8 7 8 q 6 9 6 69 MGINIDE . g arawis cee ete ce meee 15 10 Ay | 11 11 16(b) 8(a) 10 21 16 135 MEGRIGHE 2.2 s cece csee cess 7 12 5 9 8 é 14 21 12 13 114 I gion on alec gh wens 9 17 17 15 5 9 31 34 18 14 169 Me eich vowed ci asenndeuk 72 81 124 118 114 126 153 112 5 162 1,177 EE SOIR E PTC rete _44 60 33 30 44 39 32 44 23(b) 46 395 Wen GWURTACHC .... 6s csc ets 513 300 518 595 644 557 708 678 567 601 5,681 Penn. bituminous ............-- 301 456 402 536 479 477 806 572 506 539 5,074 MNGTIPRRAES 50 e oi oiace sro cio eee ae 44 226 26 28 29 33 31 34 31 38 52 TRIN, oie gine ya aie kGie chore 8 wie 0e 019 0 9 8 7 9 t 7 8 8 16 15 94 WHAGRINRION cc 5 6c ccc se ctecsieces 27 34 25 31 13 21 (i 25 39 43 295 WOME WERISSIIN 5n ecco cres die ns 134 120 159 140 194 269 356 625 364 320 2,681 British Columbia ......62ssccces 102 139 42 37 12 15 31 18 57 28 481 INOWR COUT «oes sacle toc ws mee 14 9 31 19 20 28 35 39 33 31 269 TOQUE ccc cescasc Nerusece Gor wat 1,586 1,849 1,820 2,027 2,186 2,106 2,852 2,744 2,417 3,051 22,638 (a) Six months only. (bv) Eight months only. (TABLE ITI) FATAL ACCIDENTS IN THE COAL MINES OF NORTH AMERICA, 1901-1910 RATE OF PERSONS KILLED PER 1000 EMPLOYED 1901 1902 1908 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1901-1910 NAIA. arses 5501058 6) en arais 2.90 2.79 2.94 4.77 10.75 5.2% 7.61 5.75 6.40 10.81 6.15 GOI oes shenre cavers sus-sieiseere 6.88 8.11 3.89 8.26 5.05 7.32 7.67 4.25 7.53 21.60 8.39 pS er rior reac 2.24 2.15 3.13 2.87 3.36 2.49 2.47 2.58 2.93 5.44 3.05 RIE, oo balicewcitae ache. 1.98 1.83 3.64 1.92 2.63 1.58 2.7 2.36 2.64 2.41 2.38 ONE <0 aioe 6 ciel ree Gein esa 2.05 4.2% 1.59 1.90 1.36 2.20 2.05 2.20 1.56. 2.17 2.09 pT cere cei 1.05 3.22 3.61 3.09 4 2.97 2.95 4.35 2.74 2.83 2.26 2.92 WGA. 56 sic cis cick aches 2.15 1.58 1.85 37 2.06 2.39 1.8: 2.15 1.76 3.97 2.19 WII 66. srocciee eee 2.23 1.89 2.82 2.12 2.57 2.10 0.85 2.00 3.34 2.93 2.28 BEIGE. kon sce sas eee ees 3.26 4.24 2.54 2.58 2.16 2.83 2.43 1.94 3.04 2.43 2.62 pO ere oor 1.63 1.09 1.85 1.09 1.06 1.65 b 1.70a 1.06 2.31 1.55 1.48 REIN, 56 sao ci eie sg arereceere 3.24 6.19 2.92 3.59 3.67 5.43 5.12 6.68 3.11 3.16 4.19 INGO) WEORIOG. occ secccwss 4.81 10.11 7.26 7.61 2.35 3.82 10.13 9.26 5.57 4.89 6.71 CTT SE geek Porter arerarat a 2.15 2.16 3.00 2.57 2.58 2.71 $.2 2.23 2.45 3.32 2.66 CNRE ONO 5c. 6 «6. o:6 os 6 6 0-5, sc0ke 8.35 9.62 5.42 3.63 5.76 4.81 4.15 3.02 2.78b 5.43 4.90 Penn. anthracite ......... 3.47 2.03 3.41 3.69 3.83 3.35 4.19 3.89 3.31 3.57 3.49 Penn. bituminous ........ 2.56 3.36 2.65 3.44 2.90 2.76 4.40 8.15 ~ ake 2.79 3.09 "ROTMGHECE voc cece ceteses 5.23 25.80 2.69 2.81 2.76 3.07 ®.T 3.06 2.62 3.40 5.03 WIRE pits crn ewasoes ca5c 5.06 3.24 3.21 4.06 3.57 3.69 3.07 2.99 5.36 4.38 3.89 WISGRINZION oes ices cise 5.59 7.83 5.13 6.69 2.61 4.08 6.05 4.68 6.81 7.15 5.67 West ViRgimin ....62cc0%. 4.14 3.41 4.03 3.08 3.88 5.20 6.33 10.35 5.85 5.00 5.39 British Columbia ........ 25.67 34.65 9.85 8.31 2.72 3.12 5.12 2.95 8.88 3.61 9.21 Nova. Bcotim ..ccscccscves 1.83 2.36 2.79 1.63 1.86 2.31 2.89 3.02 2.49 2.82 2.46 PCO, 66 56s iietee ce $.2! 3.48 3.16 3.33 3.40 3.20 4.15 3.84 3.39 4.18 3.56 a Six months only. b Eight months only. tails do not furnish proof of a perceptible against 449 in 1909, or an actual reduc-- is shown in detail in Table I. The table

influence as the result of the agencies re- ferred to in the quotation.

COMPARISON OF ROOF FALL AND EXPLOSION FATALITIES

It is true that, comparing 1909 with 1908, there was a decrease in the num- ber of deaths due to gas or dust explo- sions. This decrease was from 396 to

341, but it may have been purely acci- dental and not the result of the codper- ative efforts referred to.

As a matter

tion of 20 deaths, equivalent'to only 4.26 per cent. The corresponding facts for 1910 are not as yet available.

Far more significant than the forego- ing comparison is the fact that, while in 1908 there were 1080 deaths due to falls of roof or coal, the number of deaths from this group of causes during 1909 was 1191. So the actual reduction in fatal accidents due to explosions, etc., during 1909, as compared with 1908, was only 20, or 4.3 per cent., while there was

‘has been corrected for previous years

and is, therefore, not strictly comparable with the table published in the Engineer- ing and Mining Journal for Dec. 31, 1910. Such corrections are inevitable in the present state of mine inspection and the methods which prevail in giving public- ity to the facts.

All tabulations of this kind are !m- paired by the lack of precise definitions of terms. What is considered a fatal accident in one state is not necessarily

402

considered as such in another. A uniform definition of a fatal accident on the part of all the mining bureaus is desirable. It should not be difficult to come to an un- derstanding on this point and secure, if necessary, the required changes in the mining laws of the several states. It would seem a reasonable compromise to insist that all mine accidents terminating in death within one week after their oc- currence should be returned as fatal, since a longer period would involve many uncertainties which would tend to further impair the accuracy of the results. During 1910 there occurred 3051 fatal accidents in the coal-mining operations of North America, against 2417 during the previous year. have been 22,638 fatal accidents in coal mining during the decade ending with 1910, or an average of 2264 a year.

In the aggregate there

COAL AGE

West Virginia with 320, and Colorado with 319.

FATALITY KATE PER 1UUU DURING 1901 To 1910

Table II shows the fatal accident rate in coal-mining in the United States and Canada, calculated in the usual manner, upon the basis of the average number of persons employed in mining operations. For certain purposes it would perhaps be more useful to calculate the fatality rates upon the basis of the avérage number employed underground, but since this would require a separation of under- ground and outside fatalities, an element of uncertainty would be introduced in the calculations which is eliminated by the use of the returns as a whole.*

During 1910 the fatality rate was 4.18 per 1000 against an average rate of 3.56

(TABLE III) FATAL ACCIDENTS IN THE COAL MINES OF NORTH AMERICA COMPARISON OF 1910 WITH THE FIVE PREVIOUS YEARS

Number of persons Increase or killed Rate per 1000 Decrease of Yearly Average Employed Rate 1905-1909 1910 1905-1909 1910

UII © isc is ainus elon ee ote 134 238 7.09 10.81 + 3.72 PIED « wa ariaew sed oes saa 81 319 6.33 21.60 +15.27 SED cc LGaa cies Sis eisse a aS oe 183 406 2.76 5.44 + 2.68 fo ae eee 45 51 2.39 2.41 + 0.02 ey EoGbesihes Sane aoe ee 32 39 1.87 y Hee le g + 0.30 PN a. aS eine a ois bias 37 25 3.18 2.26 0.92 ee rr a 35 84 2.03 3.97 + 1.94 MIMEWENE!. o54404saw ce ~ekas 13 1% 2.4% 2.93 + 0.76 SS Se eer | 6 2.44 2.43 0.01 CS ERR ares pret 13 16 1.52 1.55 + 0.03 DEINE soca Weeies se O20 < Gate 14 13 4.75 3.16 1.59 ON MREEOD ois. sie 59.06 6 4 Wee 19 14 6.71 4.89 1.82 ED 4s bss wish iw e858 124 162 2.63 3.32 + 0.69 UE MINIRD Is Neus va iis fe him 0s so 36 46 3.93 5.43 + 1.50 Penn., anthracite .......... 631 601 Sate 3.57 0.15 Penn., bituminous .......... 568 539 3.20 2.79 0.41 SES SAS er 32 38 2.86 3.40 + 0.54 LS EE eR naar ee 9 15 3.79 4.38 + 0.59 Co ae eer 27 43 4.94 7.40 + 2.21 WVOGRE WEPRIOIR oo oc ssicces sie 362. 320 6.44 5.00 1.44 Brizish Columbia .......... 27 28 4.79 3.61 1.18 eS ery ia 31 31 2.58 2.82 + 0.24 OPO oop nis sens aes 2,461 3.051 3.60 4.18 + 0.58

These totals do not exactly correspond to the figures published by the Bureau of Mines, since for certain states, in the present tabulation, the returns are by fiscal years and not by calendar years. The recommendation frequently made, that the returns should all be for cal- endar years, may be repeated, for unless the returns are made on a monthly basis it will be impossible to secure an ac- curate and complete annual tabulation. It is a significant fact that, during 1910, the number of reported fatal acci- dents in the twenty-one states and prov- inces is, for the first time in our mining history, in excess of three thousand. The highest previous records had been for 1907, when there were 2852, and 1908, when there were 2744 deaths. On the basis of actual numbers, the loss of life was greatest in the Pennsylvania anthra- cite region, where 601 deaths occurred, followed by the bituminous region of Pennsylvania with 539, Illinois with 406,

for the decade. The highest previous rate occurred in 1907, when it reached 4.15 per 1000, and the lowest rate occurred in 1903, when it was 3.16. Even the minimum rate is decidedly above the av- erage fatality rate of foreign countries, which, during the ten years ending with 1908, was only 1.53 per 1000.

During 1910 the highest rate prevailed in Colorado, where it attained to the ex- traordinary proportion of 21.6 per 1000. The only higher rates reported for any one state and year of the decade under review were for British Columbia, 25.67 for 1901 and 34.65 for 1902; and for Tennessee, 25.8 for 1902. Next to the State of Colorado the highest rate dur- <