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T. EB. PAGE, yar: p. &. CAPPS, pH.p., LL.D. W. H. D. ROUSE, uirt.p.



jC APMAS Ti t4 ize dae

te) apes tre te yie AE fe









First Printed 1924 Reprinted 1926, 1930

Printed in Great Britain


By the assistance of Messrs. G. Bell & Sons the Editors are enabled to include in the Library the famous version of Aristophanes made by Dr. Rogers. His complete edition with its full Introductions, Notes, and Appendices, will remain indispensable to large libraries and scholars, but it is hoped that the present edition will make his work more access- ible to the general reader.

Introductions and explanatory notes have been added by the Editors. These for the most part contain only information which can readily be found elsewhere, but in cases where it seemed wise to give - Dr. Rogers’ exact view of a passage, short extracts from his notes are given in his own words.




Introduction Text and Translation

Tue Knicuts— Introduction Text and Translation Tue CLoups— Introduction Text and Translation Tue Wasrps— Introduction .

Text and Translation

WR a gece St





AnrisToPHaNEs is an elusive poet. The main religious convictions of Aeschylus may be determined with certainty from his extant plays; attentive study of the dramas of Euripides reveals his cardinal opinions on politics, society and religion, and his philosophic attitude ; but who can affirm with confidence that he has penetrated the comic mask of Aristophanes and knows his beliefs? The poet’s mocking irony baffles and perplexes his reader at almost every turn. Evvnxad’ & Neyer ;-—wa Tov ’AwddArAwW "yd per ob,

One element of the poet’s irony is his apparent frankness. He has at-times the air of desiring to be taken seriously and seems to be expressing honest convictions. He is very suggestive and provokes reflection, but the attempt to reduce his opinions to system reveals the illusion. We become uneasily conscious that the great satirist is laughing behind his mask.

A proof of this deceptive quality of the poet’s humour is found in the diversity of the opinions that have been held as to his purpose in writing. It was once the fashion among modern interpreters to take him very seriously,—the comic poet disappeared in the reformer. He was eulogized as a moralist and patriot, whose lofty purpose was to instruct his fellow-countrymen ; as an earnest thinker, who had



reflected deeply on the problems of society and government and had made Comedy simply the vehicle of his reforming ideas; as a wise and dis- cerning counsellor, who was competent to advise the citizens of Athens at a critical time on political questions and whose judgement of men and measures was sound; as a stern man withal, resolute in the performance of duty, the implacable and victorious foe of all, wherever found, who undermined the glory of Athens. This view, which Grote combated (History of Greece, \xvii), finds vigorous expression in the Apology of Robert Browning :

Next, whom thrash ?

Only the coarse fool and the clownish knave ? No! strike malpractice that affects the State, The common weal—intriguer or porns Venality, corruption, what care If shrewd or witless merely ?—so the thin Lay sap to aught that made Athenai bright And happy, change her customs, lead astray Youth or age, play the demagogue at Pnux, The sophist in Pa aistra, or—what’s worst, As widest mischief,—from the Theatre Preach innovation, bring contempt on oaths, Adorn licentiousness, despise the Cult. . .

But my soul bade Fight ! Prove arms efficient on real heads and hearts 1” ee I wield the Comic weapon rather—hate ! Hate! honest, earnest and directest hate— Warfare wherein I close with enemy. ... Such was my purpose : it succeeds, I say ! Have we not beaten Kallicratidas, Not humbled Sparté? Peace awaits our word. Since my previsions,—warranted too well By the long war now waged and worn to end— Had spared such heritage of misery, My after-counsels scarce need fear repulse. Athenai, taught prosperity has wings, Cages the glad recapture.


Thus vaunts the poet, as Browning interprets him, just after the great victory won at Arginusae. Sparta is at our feet, a new day dawns, the War is at an end. For Athens has at length learnt the bitter lesson she might have been spared had she yielded to my pleas for peace.” The actual history of the next twelve months is pathetic. The battle at Arginusae, in which Callicratidas fell, restored the maritime supremacy of Athens, but peace was not secured. The Spartans made overtures, but the Athenian people, paying small heed to the good counsels ”’ that their Poet had given them in the Acharnians, the Peace, the Lysistrata, and in other comedies no longer extant, followed the lead of drunken Cleophon and rejected the Spartan pro- posals, just as five years before they had committed the grave error of accepting his advice after the Athenian victory at Cyzicus. Sparta _bestirred herself, Lysander was sent out, and within a year Athenian arms suffered irretrievable reverse at Aegospotami.

The poet’s counsels of peace were rejected. Peace came only with disaster. His “sage” solutions of many other burning questions were equally in- effective. If Aristophanes was working for reform, as a long line of learned interpreters of the poet have maintained, the result was lamentably dis- appointing’: he succeeded in effecting not a single change. He wings the shafts of his incomparable wit at all the popular leaders of the day—Cleon, Hyperbolus, Peisander, Cleophon, Agyrrhius, in succession, and is reluctant to unstring his bow even when they are dead. But he drove no one of them from power; there is little evidence, indeed, that



he damaged their influence or even disturbed their brazen self-confidence. Cleon, when the poet’s libellous personal abuse became even in his judgement indecent, promptly brought him to his knees. “When Cleon pressed me hard and tanned my hide, and outsiders laughed to see the sport, I confess ”’— Aristophanes says in the Wasps—* I played the ape a bit.” He adds significantly that he failed to get popular support in this quarrel. The inference is that the people did not think badly of Cleon; but modern opinion of the popular leaders in Athens, formed on the evidence that Aristophanes is supposed ~ to furnish, has been persistently unfayourable, and Cleon’s rehabilitation as a sagacious, if turbulent, statesman who consistently maintained the imperial policy of Pericles has been slow.

The poet vehemently protested, it has been said, against the New Education, and viewing the whole intellectual tendency of his time with alarm, pleaded for a restoration of the simple discipline that had moulded the morals and minds and manners of the hardy men who fought at Marathon. Furthermore, © he clearly apprehended the evils inherent in the Athenian system of judicature, which committed the administration of justice to a horde of common men, ignorant of the law, swayed by the impulse of the moment, monsters of caprice and injustice,” and ruthlessly exposed the unrighteousness of its pro- ceedings. Finally, reverent of the best traditions of the stage, he stood forth, it is alleged, as their tho) compromising defender, and sternly resisted the?) innovations that were gradually changing the spirit | and the form of tragedy during the last third of the~ century, and for a generation relentlessly pursued







their chief exponent, concealing an attack that was meant to ruin him under the veil of caricature, parody, burlesque, and satire. But Socrates still frequented, winter and summer, the gymnasia, the market and the schools, and the Sophists continued to discourse and draw their pay; Philocleon, after a single experience of the pleasures of polite society, again forgathered with his cronies before the dawn of day and trudged away to Court; and Euripides, calmly disregarding the malicious strictures of his youthful critic, continued to write tragedy in his own manner and to present on the stage plays that were heard by the young men of Athens with wild acclaim.

This extreme conception of the funetion of Greek comedy as chiefly censorial and monitory has been modified with larger and more exact knowledge of the times in which the poet lived and of the conditions of life under which he wrote, but it has had unfortunate consequences. These plays have been regarded as a trustworthy source of information in establishing the facts of Greek history, biography, and institu- tions. So serious an interpretation of a form of literature of which the primary intention must always be entertainment and amusement inevitably obscured the poet’s elusive humour. A jest became a state- ment of fact, a caricature a portrait, a satire a docu- ment. The poet’s conception, clothed in a fantastical disguise that rivalled the grotesque dress of his own actors, has been essentially misapprehended in an entire play.

On the other hand the mistaken disposition, recently manifested, to regard Aristophanes simply as a jester and to deny that he had any other purpose than to provoke laughter is an extreme, though



natural, reaction. This view denies at the same time, as might have been expected, the cathartic efficacy of Greek tragedy. The highest comedy, typed in the earlier plays of Aristophanes, and in some of the comedies of Moliére, is regenerative. | The purpose of Aristophanes in the Acharnians, in / which the action turns upon the impossible and / fantastic whimsy of an Athenian farmer securing ' fpeace with Sparta for himself and his family alone, \. lis to ridicule the war-party. Nobody would have been more amused than the poet if he had been told that his play was to stop the fighting, but he did believe that the War was an evil, and so far his heart was honestly in his theme; and I have no doubt that many a man who had laughed uproari- ously at the peace-loving farmer set single-handed in the comedy against a quarrelsome chorus, a powerful general, the whole tribe of sycophants, and the demagogue Cleon in the background, went home from the play less content with the-course_of his , political leaders and longing in his heart for the good old days of peace. The instrument by which the poet probed the popular discontent was that most effective of all means when skilfully used—a laugh. To regard Aristophanes as merely a jester is to” mistake the man. Ridicule of contemporary persons, ~ that is generally good-natured, or systems or pre- vailing ideas is his main purpose, I think, in his plays. His praise is for the dead. This ridicule, © which ranges from satire to airy conceit, is made humorous by centering it in a far-fetched fantastic conception that is not the less available if it is ~ impossible. Facts are exaggerated or invented with superb nonchalance and bewildering semblance of



vsality. In these mad revels of unrestrained fancy | is difficult to lay hands upon Aristophanes the man. _ ‘Mevertheless we do discover probable indications of

\is attachments and beliefs. He lived in an age of ‘atellectual unrest when many vital questions pressed ‘or solution. ‘That a man of his intelligence did not sive them consideration and reach conclusions is mpossible. No doubt he detested a debauchee— et Ariphrades bear witness,—but he must have sympathized with the revolt of the young men of his day against the severe and meagre discipline in which youth were trained during the first half of the century, and must have shared in their eager interest _ in the new subjects of knowledge. No doubt he deprecated the vicious use of the skill for which _ Strepsiades clamours in the Clouds, but he had too keen a mind to fail to distinguish between the right and the wrong use of this power or to reject all study of the art of persuasion because it might be abused. He was himself a skilful dialectician, as the Debates found in nearly all his comedies. prove. He was acquainted with Socrates and must have known that he never misused his wonderful dialectical power, and must have felt an expert’s special thrill of | pleasure in observing with what skill he employed it. Furthermore, the times in which the poet lived were troublous ; the fate of Athens again and again stood on the razor’s edge. He was not indifferent to the welfare of his country nor of his fellow-countrymen. There is a serious undertone in the Acharnians that gives it an indescribable elevation, and in the Lysis- trata, a Rabelaisian play written after the disaster to Athenian arms in Sicily, in which, Thucydides records, fleet and army utterly perished, and of the



many who went forth few returned home, there are verses of intensest pathos that betray the poet’s poignant sympathy :

ovx éorw avip év TH xwpa; pa AU od Sir’, eld’ Erepdbs tis.

Aristophanes, then, was a man of quick sympathies and settled convictions, although positive expression ‘of belief and feeling is naturally rare in his plays, since he was a writer of comedy. Despite this reticence, it is both interesting and important to determine, so far as this may be done, his opinions on the questions that in his day were pressing for answer, and among these especially his political position. Was he an aristocrat? Was he, in par- ticular, as M. Couat believed, a pamphleteer in the pay of the aristocrats? Or was he a democrat? And if a democrat, how is the satirical—but extremely comical—characterization of Athenian Demus in the Knights, which his countrymen viewed with good- natured amusement, to be interpreted? To these weighty and significant questions the reader may find an answer by studying the plays for himself.


[This Introduction is reprinted from Dr. Loeb’s translation of Aristophanes and the Political Parties at Athens by Maurice Croiset. It was originally arranged that the trans- lation of Aristophanes for the Loeb Classical Library should be made by Professor John Williams White of Hapvaset University, but as he died before his work was completed it was thought that the printing of the above as an Introduction to the volumes which were to have been his work would be a fitting tribute to the memory of one who, while he was alive, took the deepest interest in the welfare of the Library.]



VOL. I ; B


The Acharnians was produced at the Lenaean Dionysia i in February 425 B.c., and like the Banqueters in 427 and the Babylonians in 426, it was in the name of Callistratus that it was brought out. The prize was awarded to Aristophanes; Cratinus with his Storm-Tossed (Xeipa(duevor) was second, and Eupolis with his New Moons (Novpyviac) last. It is the oldest Greek comedy which has survived.

The general idea of the play is so simple that it needs no special Introduction. ‘An honest | citizen, finding it impossible to get the State to | conclude a peace with Sparta, makes a private | peace on his own account; and thenceforward is represented as living in all the joys and comforts of Peace, whilst the rest of the City continues to suffer the straits and the miseries of War. But this simple plot is worked out and illustrated with = abundance of laughable and picturesque incidents.” Indeed Mr. Rogers considers that ‘if only one of his Comedies had survived to our day, I think that this is the one which would have given us the most comprehensive idea of the range of Aristophanic satire,” and he adds: “If it has not the concen- | trated power of his later plays, yet no other Comedy exhibits the same variety of incident. With the

* Rogers, Introduction, p. xxvi.



prodigality of youth, the poet runs through the whole gamut of his likes and dislikes; his longing for Panhellenic unity, as in the great days of Marathon and Salamis; his efforts for right and justice, 75 <b kat 7d Séxacov, in Athenian public life ; and again the special objects of his aversion, as contravening these aims— the demagogues, the Informers, the war-party, the sophists, the lowering of the old heroic tragedy by.Euripides— are all brought before us in turn; the germs of almost all his later efforts are discoverable in this early production.” ¢

The Chorus consists of old men from Acharnae, a town which had especially suffered from the invasion of Archidamus, and which was celebrated for the « manly and soldier-like qualities’ of its inhabitants who “at the commencement of the Peloponnesian War furnished a contingent of no less than 3000 hoplites’’ (cf. 1. 180 and note).

* Introduction, p. xxvi,





KOPA A kal B Ovyarépe rod Meyapéws ZTKOPANTHS BOINTOZ




AIKAIONIOAIS. “Ooad1) d€dnypar Ti ewavrob Kapoiav, 4 \ /, / \ / é HoOnv d5é Boa: mavu Baa: rérTrapa* a& 8 ddvv7AOynv, pappoxoo.wydpyapa. ' Ps / > 7 + / dep iow, ti 8 yobnv akiov xarpyddovos; eyad’ ef @& ye To Kéap eddpavOny idwv, 5 a / / / > /, tots mévte TaAdvTous ofs KAéwv e&ijpecerv. af? 4 > / \ ~ \ ¢ / Tal” ws éyavwOnv, Kat PiA@ tovs imméas dua Tobro Totpyov: d&vov yap “EAAdée. > > > / a Ss / GAN wduvyjOnv Eerepov ad tpaywod.Kor, ore 51) *kexHvn mpocdoKav tov AicyvAov, 49 6 8’ dveimev “‘ cicay’, & Odoyv, Tov xopdv.” m&s totr écewwé pov, Soxeis, THY Kapdiav; > + Vers Lid et ints | /, \ adr’ Erepov jobnv, jvix’ émi Mooxw more AcEéifeos eioiAP’? aodpevos Bowwdtvov. ~ > > / \ / > 4 thtes 8 anéavov kat duveotpddyy iddv, 45 ore 57) Trapexvise Xaipis emt tov dpbiov. > > > 4 > 2¢é Ld > \ cs aan’ odderdmor e& dTov *yw pimTopat ovtws &d7xOnv bo Kovias Tas odpts

* In the background are three houses : the central one that of Dicaeopolis, the other two those of Euripides and Lamachus. In the foreground is a rough representation of the Pnyx ~ where D. is awaiting the opening of the Assembly.

> Received as a bribe from certain of the allies to get their tribute-assessment lowered. The Knights compelled him to disgorge.



DICAEOPOLIS.* What heaps of things have bitten me

to the heart !

A small few pleased me, very few, just four ;

But those that vexed were sand - dune- hundredfold.

Let’s see: what pleased me, worth my gladfulness ?

I know a thing it cheered my heart to see ;

"Twas those five talents’ vomited up by Cleon.

At that I brightened ; and I love the Knights

For that performance ; ’twas of price to Hellas,

Then I'd a tragic sorrow, when I looked

With open mouth for Aeschylus, and lo,

The Crier called, Bring on your play, Theognis.°

Judge what an icy shock that gave my heart !

Next ; pleased I was when Moschus left, and in

Dexitheus came with his Boeotian song.4

But oh this year I nearly cracked my neck,

When in slipped Chaeris for the Orthian Nome.

But never yet since first I washed my face

Was I so bitten—in my brows with soap,?

¢ A very: dull, frigid poet, ef. T. 170 and note.

4 One of the famous lyrical nomes of Terpander; the Orthian was another; a spirit-stirring strain as of soldiers marching to victory. Chaeris was a Theban piper, who used to slink in to feasts uninvited.

* brd xov. r. 6, unexpectedly for bm’ édvvns Tiv Kapdiay or the like. T


e ~ ey! v7 / > , ds viv, dmdr’ ovons Kupias exKAnaias a ¢ \ éwbwijs Epnos 4 md adryi: of 8 év ayopa Aadotar, Kdvw Kai KdTw A U TO cxowiov pevyovor TO pemiATwmpevor 29> ¢ / Ld > > > / od8 of mpuTdvers yKovow, add’ awptay HKoVTES, Eira 8 woTLodvTaL ms SoKeis eAOdvres GAAjAoLoL mrepl mpdrov EvAov, ‘GOpdou Katappéovres: elpyivn 8 omws m~ > ) / > / / Zora. mpoTrysao’ ovdev w@ mods, TALS. .éy@ 8 dei mpdtiotos eis exxAnotav | voorav Kdibnwar Kar” emedav @ povos, oTévw, Kéxnva, okopdwOpar, Tépdopat, dmop®, ypadw, mapatidropat, Aoyilopar, 4 {Te \ daoBrérawv és Tov aypdv, elpyvns <pav, oruyav pev dorv, Tov 8 euov Shpov moldy, ds otderumor’ elev, avOpaxas mpiw, > a” b 39> / ovK df0s, odK EAaov, od WOEu Tp, > > 2. a A "a > / > ~ GAN’ adbros éhepe mdvTAa XW TpLOV amp. vov ody arexvds yKw TapecKkevacpevos Body, soxpovew, AowWopeiv Tods pyTopas, 27 »” \ \ > td / édv tis GAAo wAjv wept cipyvyns AéEyp. GAN of mpuTdvets yap odrou peonuBpwot. ov Hydpevov; Todr exeiv” obyd “Aeyov" els Tiv mpocdplav mas avip @orilerar. KHPYz. mdapit eis TO mpdaber, / > ¢ a“ > \ Ss ~ / mdpil’, ws dv evros Are Tod Kabdpparos. AM@I@EOS. 707 Tis el7e; / > 4, , KHP. tis ayopevew BovAerar; AM. ey.

* A rope dripping with ruddle, used to sweep in loiterers from the Agora,

8 Wee ye





As now, when here’s the fixed Assembly Day, And morning come, and no one in the Pnyx. They’re in the Agora chattering, up and down Scurrying to dodge the vermeil-tinctured cord.4 Why even the Prytanes are not here! They'll come ; Long after time, elbowing each other, jostling For the front bench, streaming down all together You can’t think how. But as for making Peace They do not care one jot. O City! City! But I am always first of all to come, And here I take my seat; then, all alone, I pass the time complaining, yawning, stretching, I fidget, write, twitch hairs out, do my sums, Gaze fondly country-wards, longing for Peace, Loathing the town, sick for my village-home, Which never cried, Come, buy my charcoal, or My vinegar, my oil, my anything But freely gave us all; no buy-word there. So here I’m waiting, thoroughly prepared To riot, wrangle, interrupt the speakers Whene’er they speak of anything but Peace. —But here they come, our noon-day Prytanes !_/ Aye, there they go! I told you how ’twould be3 Every one jostling for the foremost place. CRIER. Move forward all, Move up, within the consecrated line. AMPHITHEUsS.° Speaking begun ? cR. Who will address the meeting ? am. I,

» These are all city cries. In 1. 36 the pun in mplwy (lit. “saw” or sawyer”) is obscure: it may mean that grating rasping word.”

* Entering in a violent hurry.


KHP. Tis WV;

AM. "Audideos.

KHP. ovKk avOpwros ;

AM. ov, dN’ abdvaros. 6 yap "Audibeos Anunrpos 7 Hv Kat Tpumrodepov- tovtov d€ KeAeds ylyverau yapet Kedcos Pawaperyy TH Onv cpa, e€ is Auxivos eyever €k TOUTOU 8 ey 50 abdvares eiu’* ewoi érrérpeav of Deol orrovdas trovetaban pos Aakedaysovious Love. adr’ abdvaros wv, dvdpes, efdde’ odK exw od yap diddacw of mpuTavets.

KHP. ot roێdTat.

aM. ® Tpimrodcue Kai Kered, mepidieobe we; 55

Al. @vdpes mpuTdvers, adiKeire THY exKAnoiav Tov avop amdyovres, doris Hiv “Oed€ oTrovoas Toujoa Kal Kpeudoas Tas aomidas.

KHP. Kd0no0 otya.

Al. pa tov ’AmdAAw *yd pev ov, nv pr) Tept elpyvns ye mpuTavevontre pot. 60

KHP. oi mpéoPes of mapa Baoréws. / / > \ , Al. troiov Baoiléws; axPoua "yo mpéoBeor Kal Tots ta@ot Tois T dAalovedpaow. KHP. olya. Al. BaBadé, dxBdrava, Tod oxjparos. > / > ¢ lon /, \ / MPESBrS. eréeupal” yuds ws Baoida tov péyav, 65 pucbov dépovras dvo dSpaxyas THs Hépas em” Edvdupévous dpxovtos*

: Scythian archers were the regular police at Athens. A. is ejected as not being an Athenian citizen when he begins to talk of “* peace and complain of the magistrates.




Who are you? Amphitheus. Not a man?

No, an immortal. For the first Amphitheus Was of Demeter and Triptolemus The son: his son was Celeus ; Celeus married Phaenarete, who bare my sire Lycinus. Hence I’m immortal ; and the gods committed To me alone the making peace with Sparta. But, though immortal, I’ve no journey-money; The Prytanes won't provide it.

Archers,* there ! O help me, Celeus ! help, Triptolemus ! Ye wrong the Assembly, Prytanes, ye do

wrong it, Haling away a man who only wants To give us Peace, and hanging up of shields. St! Take your seat. By Apollo, no, not I,

Unless ye prytanize about the Peace.

O yes! The Ambassadors from the Great King ! ® What King! I’m sick to death of embassies, And all their peacocks and their impositions. Keep silence ! Hey!!! Ecbatana, here’s a show.

AMBASSADOR. Ye sent us, envoys to the Great King’s

Court, Receiving each two drachmas daily, when Euthymenes was Archon.

> Enter, clad in gorgeous oriental apparel, the envoys sent to the Persian court eleven years previously in the archonship of Euthymenes 437-6 8.c.



Al. oto Ta&v Spaxypav. mp. Kal O47’ erpvydpeba Sua TOV Kaitiorptav mediwv ddoiTAavobyrTes eoxnvnpevot, éf” dppaywatdv padOakds Kkaraxeievor, 70 amoAAvpevor. Al. opodpa yap eowlouny eyo Tapa THhv emarEw ev popuT@ KATOKELMEVOS ; up. €evilduevou d€ mpos Biav ézivomev

> ¢ , > / \ / e€ tadivwv éexTwpatwy Kal ypuvcidwr aKpatov olvov 7dvv.

Al. ® Kpavad rors, 75 > > / A / ~ / dp atobdaver TOV kardyehov TOV mpéoBewv ; TIP. 8 BdpBapor yap avdpas yyotvrat povous Tovs mActora Suvaprévous karapayety Kal qui. Al. 7yeis 5€ Aatkaords Te Kal KaTramvyovas. / > > \ / > mp. ere. terdptw és ta Bacire HArAGopev: 80 > > > > / A \ / GAN’ cis amdmarov wyeTo, oTpatiav AaBayv, Kaxelev oxTm ptvas emt ypvodv dpdav. Al. mdéoov Tov mpwKTov xpovou Evviyyayev; IP. TH mavocAjyvw: Kar amnddev oixade. > 7s / > ¢ bd elr’ e€évile* mrapetiber 8 iv ddovs 85 €x KpiBdvov Bods. Al. kal tis elde mamoTe Bots xpiBaviras; tav aAalovevparwr. \ \ \ / , mp. Kat vat pa Ac’ dprw rpimAdovv KAewvdpov / c a > > an / mapeOnkev Hiv: dvoua 8 hv adtt@ hevak. ak et. a i / , / \ / Al. Tatr’ dp’ edevaniles ot, S00 Spaxpyas Pépwv. 90

@ He calls the Acropolis by this special title (kpavass= rugged ”’) because it suggests a contrast with the luxury of these envoys.

» For these mythical hills ¢f. Plaut. Stich. i. 1.26“ Persarum | Montes, qui esse Aurei perhibentur.” els daéz., “to the
















O me, the drachmas ! And weary work we found it, sauntering on, Supinely stretched in our luxurious litters With awnings o’er us, through Cajystrian plains. ’Twas a bad time. Aye, the good time was mine, Stretched in the litter on the ramparts here ! And oft they féted us, and we perforce Out of their gold and crystal cups must drink The pure sweet wine. O Cranaan? city, mark you The insolent airs of these ambassadors ? For only those are there accounted MEN Who drink the hardest, and who eat the most. As here the most debauched and dissolute. In the fourth year we reached the Great King’s Court. But he, with all his troops, had gone to sit An eight-months’ session on the Golden Hills >! Pray,at what time did he conclude his session? At the full moon ; and so came home again. Then he too féted us, and set before us Whole pot-baked oxen— And who ever heard Of pot-baked oxen? Out upon your lies ! And an enormous bird, three times the size Of our Cleonymus ¢: its name was—Gull. That’s why you gulled us out of all those drachmas !

latrines,” is substituted rapa rpocdoxtay for eis 7bdeuov or the


¢ See Index: he was very fat and a rascal; in ¢évat there is a play on poté.



AM. Kal viv ayovres yKowev VevdapraBar, Tov Baoirdws ddbaduor. Al. exndrpere ye KO pag mardéas Tov ye aov Tov mpéoBews. KHP. 6 Raikes opbadpos. Al. dvak ‘HpdxaAes: ™pos Tov bedv, dvopwre, vavppaKTov Brérrets 5 395 7 Tmept dicpav Kedparr ey VEWGOLKOV oxomeis ; doKeop,’ exets qWou Tepl Tov 6pbahyov KATO ; mp. aye 57) av, PBaorleds atta amémepibev pacov A€Eovr’ "AGyvaiovow, @ FevdaprdBa. Steer iaavey laprapav eEape’ dvamicodvat odtpa. 100 . Evvjcal? 6 Aéyers Al. pa tov ’Amdddw yo peev ov. mp. méurbew Baorréa gno bpiv Xpvotov. Aye 57) od petlov Kat oadpdis TO xpvaiov. VEY. ov Aji. xpico, XavvdrpwKr’ "laovad. Al. aac Kakodainwr, ws cadds. TIP. Ti dat Adyer; 105 Al. 6 Tt3 Xavvompwxrous Tovs *Idovas Aéyer, et mpoodoKdar xpvoiov éK Tov BapBapwr. mp. ovK, dN’ axdvas d0¢ ye Xpvotov Aéyet. Al. 7olas dxavas ; od pev dralav ef péyas. adn’ diarB« eya) Bacand ToOrov peovos. 110 dye 57) od dpdoov eyol cadds, mpds Tovrovi,

¢* A fellow who will give you false measure,” dprd8n being a Persian measure.

The Scholiast says: @&e.o. reparwons tis yedolws éoxeva- opévos, Kal dpbadpyov exwv tva él mavrds rod mpoowrov.

¢ Because an eye was.commonly painted on each side of a ship’s bow.

# This jumble is generally supposed to mean J have just begun to repair what is rotten.



ams. And now we bring you Pseudo-Artabas ¢ The Great King’s Eye.’ DI. O how I wish some raven Would come and strike out yours, the Ambassador’s. crieR. O yes! the Great King’s Eye ! DI. O Heracles ! By Heaven, my man, you wear a war-ship look ¢! What! Do you round the point, and spy the docks ? Is that an oar-pad underneath your eye ? AmB. Now tell the Athenians, Pseudo-Artabas, What the Great King commissioned you to say. Serndeiirahs. Ijisti boutti furbiss upde rotti.4 AMB. Do you understand ? DI. By Apollo, no not I. aMB. He says the King is going to send you gold. (To Pseudo.) Be more distinct and clear about the gold. PsEuD. No getti goldi, nincompoop Iawny. DI. Wow, but that’s clear enough ! AMB, What does he say ? pi. He says the Ionians must be nincompoops If they’re expecting any gold from Persia. AMB. No, no: he spoke of golden income-coupons.é DI. What income-coupons? You're a great big liar ! You, get away ; I'll test the man myself. (To Pseudo.) Now look at this (showing his fist): and answer Yes, or No!

¢ dyxdvy is apparently a large provision-basket. 15



AM. Al.


iva py oe Baixo Bappo Lapdvavexdv*

Bactreds 6 péyas hyuiv aoméuiber ypvotov; (dvavevet.)

ddAws ap’ eEaratwpel’ bro THv mpécBewv; (émwevet. )

‘EAAnvixov y’? emévevoay avdpes odtou, 115 KovK €o8” émws ovk cioly evbevd’ abrobev. Kal Toi pev edvoUxow TOV ETEpoV TOUTOVL eyed 6s €oTt, KAcrob evs 6 LPBupriov. @ BeppoBovrov TpwKTov eupnpeve, ToLovoe , ® miOnke, Tov more” exwv 120 edvodxos jpiy, 7)AGes EoKEvAGHEVOS ; 60l O€ Tis moT e€oTiv; ov SyHmov Urpatwr. oiya, Kable. tov Baotrdws db0adpov 7 Bovdr Kade? els TO mpuTavetov.

tadra Sir odK ayxovn; 125 Kamer’ éyw dAr evOadi orparevomat, tovs d€ Eevilew ovdémoT’ love y’ 7 Bupa. GAN’ epydoouat tu Sewov Epyov Kal péya. adr’. *Apudibeds or rod ’otw;

ovTool mapa.

€uot od Tavtact AaBdy dxrd dSpaxpyas 130 omovoas moinoa mpos Aakedaysoviovs movm Kal Totou matdiovo. Kal TH mAdTiOL* duets 5€ mpecBeveobe Kal KexnveTe.

@ j,e. red, the colour of blood ; cf. P. 1174.

» The two eunuchs in attendance on Pseudo-Artabas.

* See Index. D. hurls against the effeminate youth two lines parodied, the first from Euripides, tpwxroy being sub- stituted for mpiiryos or the like, the second from Archilochus, who for rdv muywr’ has rhy ruyjv.

@ Another beardless effeminate.



Or else I'll dye you with a Sardian dye.* Does the Great King intend to send us gold ? (Pseudo-Artabas nods dissent.) Then are our envoys here bamboozling us ? (He nods assent.) These fellows ® nod in pure Hellenic style ; I do believe they come from hereabouts. Aye, to be sure; why, one of these two eunuchs Is Cleisthenes,° Sibyrtius’s son ! O thou young shaver of the hot-souled rump, With such a beard, thou monkey, dost thou come Tricked out amongst us in a eunuch’s guise ? And who’s this other chap? Not Straton,@ surely ? crieR. St! Take your seat! O yes! The Council ask the Great King’s Eye to dinner At the Town Hall.¢ DI. Now is not that a throttler ? Here must I drudge at soldiering; while these rogues, The Town-Hall door is never closed to them. Now then, I’ll do a great and startling deed. Amphitheus! Where’s Amphitheus ? AM. Here am I, pi. Here be eight drachmas; take them; and with all The Lacedaemonians make a private peace For me, my wife and children : none besides. (To the Prytanes and citizens) Stick to your embassies and befoolings, you. ¢ State guests, and other persons worthy of honour, were entertained in the Town Hall daily. VOL, I c 17



KHP. mpocitw Odwpos 6 mapa LerdAxous. @ENPOR. 60t. Al. Erepos ddalev obros eloxnpuUrrerar. : @EQ. Xpovov pev ovK dy Lev ev Opdicn modwr, Al. pea. Ai’ ovK av, €t i proov ye pn “pepes trodvy. @EQ. €f fa) Karévupe xuove THY Opgeny ody, Kal i rods moTapovs ene’ bm’ adrov Tov xpovov or evOadi O<oyns jyywvilero, Tobrov pera LurdAKous emwov Tov xpdvor* Kal dijra haha Vv drreppvds, bpav 7 epaoris Fv didn On) Wore Kal ev Toto Tolxous eypad’, *AGvaton Kadoi. é 8 vids, dv * APnpatay. emeroujpcda, Tipe gaye d\Advras e€ "Arraroupioy, Kal TOV matép nvTipore Bonbety Th maTpa* 6 a@poce orévdav BonOjcew, Exwv otpatiav Tooattyy wor "A@nvaious épeiv, Ooov TO Xpha tapvoTwmv mpocepxeTat. Al. KaKLoT’ amoAoiuny, et Te ToUTwY TrEiopat dv elas evravbot ov, rAjv Tay TapvoTwr. @EQ. Kal viv Omep paxywrarov Opaxav ebvos Erepiev dpiv. Al. Tobro pevt” yon oadés. KHP. of Opes ite Sedp’, os O€wpos yyayev. * \ / \ / Al. TouTl Ti €oTL TO KaKOV; @EQ. ’Odopdvrwy orparés.

* King of the Odrysians in Thrace. Theorus had gone on an embassy to them. PY: So frigid a poet that he was nicknamed Xujv ; cf. 113


¢ In the first year of the war Athens entered into alliance with Sitalees and made his son Zdéoxos a citizen (Thue. ii.




O yes! Theorus from Sitalces 7!








O here’s another humbug introduced. We should not, sirs, have tarried long in Thrace— But for the salary you kept on drawing. But for the storms, which covered Thrace with snow And froze the rivers. "Iwas about the season At which Theognis ® was performing here. I all that time was drinking with Sitalces ; A most prodigious Athens-lover he, Yea such a true admirer, he would scribble On every wall My beautiful Athenians ! His son,° our newly-made Athenian, longed To taste his Apaturian sausages, And bade his father help his fatherland. And he, with deep libations, vowed to help us With such an host that every one would say Heavens ! what a swarm of locusts comes this may ! Hang me, if I believe a single word Of all that speech, except about the locusts.4 And here he sends you the most warlike tribe Of all in Thrace. Come, here’s proof positive. The Thracians whom Theorus brought, come forward ! What the plague’s this ? The Odomantian host.¢

27). The Apaturia was a family or clan festival, to which only those enrolled in a phratry (¢parpia) could be admitted. 4 DP. fears that they will eat up their allies no less than their foes. ¢ A Thracian tribe on the Strymon.


Al. @EQ.







Al. AM,


/ > / > , / rotwv “OdSouavrav; eimé prov, TouTt Ti Hv; tis tOv ’Odopdvrwy Td méos aroreOpiaxev;

4, Suv. 4, \ ~ rovtous edv Tis Svo Spaxpyas pcbov 5188,

, A / a KatameArdoovrar tiv Bowwtiav Any. 160 \ 4 \ a > tA Toigdl dvo Spaxpas Tots azrepwAnpevots ; dmoarévor pevtav 6 Opavirys Acws, ¢ / / > / 6 awaimors. olor TaAas, amddAvpat, ¢ \ ~ > 4 \ / 4 imo TOv’ Odoudvrwv 74, oxdpoda Topfovpevos. od KaraBadcire Ta oKdpod ; & pwoxOnpe at, 165

od pi) Mpdcer TOUTOLOW eoKopodLOpEVoLs ; ravti mepieideO” of mpuTdvers maCXOVTA [LE > ~ / \ ay? ¢ 3 3 ~ / ev TH maTpidu Kal Tab0’ dar” avdpOv PapBapww ; GAN’ arrayopevw pr) movetv exKAnotav rois Opagi wepi prcbod: Aéyw S dpiv ore 170 Swoonuia *ori Kat pavis BéBAnké je. tovs Opaxas damévat, mapeivar 8 eis Evyy. of yap mpurdvers Avovat THY eKKAnaiav.

olor TéAas, puTTwTOV Goov amuwdA€oa. GAN’ éx AaxedSaipovos yap ’“Apdibeos odi. 175 xaip’, “Apdibee. pnw, mpw dv ye oT@ Tpéxwv"

Set yap pe devyovr’ exduyetv “Axapveas. vi 8 €orw;

> A A is ee A ,

eyd) wev Sedpd cor arovddas Pépwv ¢ > ~ / €omevdov: of 8’ wodpovto mpeaBirat Twes

@ The little round ré\rn (targe) was distinctly Thracian.

> The ordinary pay of a rower was one drachma a day. The @pavira who sat on the highest bench and worked the longest oars would be picked men.

¢ Like cocks which were supposed to fight better when primed with garlic; cf. K. 494.











The Odomantians, pho! Hallo, look here. Are Odomantians all equipped like this ? Give them two drachmas each a day, and these Will targeteer * Boeotia all to bits. Two drachmas ® for THESE scarecrows! Oh, our tars, Our noble tars, the safeguard of our state, Well may they groan at this. O! Murder! O! These Odomantian thieves have sacked my garlic. Put down the garlic! drop it! You rapscallion, How dare you touch them, when they’re , arlic-primed.¢ O will you let them, Prytanes, use me thus, Barbarians too, in this my fatherland ? But stop! I warn you not to hold the Assembly About the Thracians’ pay. I tell you there’s A portent 4 come ; I felt a drop of rain ! The Thracians are to go, and two days hence Come here again. The Assembly is dissolved.

O me, the salad I have lost this day ! ¢ But here’s Amphitheus, back from Lace- daemon. Well met, Amphitheus ! Not till I’ve done running. I needs must flee the Acharnians, clean away. What mean you ? I was bringing back in haste The treaties, when some veterans smelt them out,

@ Lit. A sign from Zeus.” ¢ The loss of the garlic had ruined it.



Al. AM. Al.

AM. Al.




2 / \ A v *Ayapvikol,